|Journal of Mental Health Counseling|
Volume 37, Number 4, October 2015
1. Trauma Counseling and Interventions: Introduction to the Special Issue (Pages 283-294)
Rachael D. Goodman
This introduction to the special issue on trauma counseling and interventions describes the historical and current contexts of trauma counseling scholarship and practice. It also points to the new directions that the articles in this special issue exemplify, including a perspective that attends to the complex, multifaceted, and contextually situated ways in which individuals, families, and communities experience trauma, as well as the processes of growth and resilience.
2. Understanding and Healing Historical Trauma: The Perspectives of Native American Elders (Pages 294-307)
Lisa Grayshield, Jeremy J. Rutherford, Sibella B. Salazar, Anita L. Mihecoby and Laura L. Luna
In this phenomenological study 11 Native American elders addressed three research questions: (a) the effect of historical trauma on self, family, and community; (b) how historical trauma currently affects Native people and their communities; and (c) what they would recommend that counselors and therapists do in addressing issues of historical trauma for Native and tribal people. All participants spoke of historical trauma in terms of loss of tribal language and culture. They seemed to speak directly to Native people themselves as having the answers to healing and wellness for their own people; however, recommendations for nontribal people who work with Native people and communities were discussed.
3. Survivors with Dissociative Identity Disorder: Perspectives on the Counseling Process (Pages 308-322)
Lamerial Jacobson, Jesse Fox, Hope Bell, Melissa Zeligman and Joseph Graham
Although individuals diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID) report high levels of trauma across their lifetime, there has been little research on survivors of DID and what they perceive as effective counseling techniques, therapist qualities, and treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives on the counseling process of clients diagnosed with DID (N = 13). This article spells out the implications of the findings for counselors working with survivors of DID.
4. Current, Continuous, and Cumulative Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A New Model for Trauma Counseling (Pages 323-340)
Ibrahim A. Kira, Jeffrey S. Ashby, Andrea Z. Omidy and Linda Lewandowski
The current dominant focus on treating single past traumas rarely addresses current, ongoing, or continuous interpersonal, intergroup, and systemic traumas or their cumulative and proliferation dynamics. The goal of this paper is to close this gap by introducing an alternative model that addresses these trauma types. The model incorporates eight precognitive, cognitive, behavioral, and social interventions. The behavioral interventions are (1) prioritizing safety and (2) addressing threats through behavior skills training inclusive of regulating personal and groupbased emotions. The precognitive components are (3) stimulating the will to live and positive dispositional qualities and (4) identity work. The cognitive components are (5) psychoeducation, (6) stress inoculation, and (7) trauma narration. The social intervention is (8) advocacy, social justice and reconnecting to social networks. We discuss the evidence for each component and provide a case example to illustrate the model’s utility. We also discuss future directions for research and model development.
5. Resilience Strategies of Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse and their Female Partners: A Phenomenological Inquiry (Pages 341-354)
Gerald K. Crete and Anneliese A. Singh
This phenomenological study explored the lived experience of male survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who identified as resilient in their current relationships with female partners. The study was grounded in Relational-Cultural Theory (Jordan, 2004; Miller, 1976) in order to examine the relational movements within participants’ relationships with their female partners. The findings identified seven relational movements that corresponded with growth in resilience. Resilient male survivors moved from past abuse to therapeutic processing and from isolation to finding a purpose. Personal and relational challenges to resilience were self-hatred, insecurity, restricted emotionality, masculine identity crisis, and negative coping strategies. Resilient male survivors developed mutual empathy, greater trust, and deeper connections; reprocessed their masculine identity; and developed a positive vision for the future. Implications for future research and practice and study limitations are discussed.
6. The Relevance of Postmodernism to Counselors and Counseling Practice (Pages 355-363)
James T. Hansen
Postmodernism is a broad intellectual movement that has been changing the way people approach art, music, literature, politics, and philosophy since the late 20th century. This article addresses the impact of postmodern thinking on the practice of counseling and its relevance to counselors’ approach to understanding clients and their world.
7. Practice-Based Research: Meeting the Demands of Program Evaluation through the Single-Case Design (Pages 364-376)
The counseling profession is moving toward a foundation in outcome research to enhance the validity and efficacy of clinical mental health counselors. A disparity between the roles of researcher and counselor has resulted in counselors relying on other professions to validate their work. To remedy this gap, practice-based research using the single-case design is promoted as a suitable method for counselors. Current research is explored to highlight the value of the single-case design in clinical practice and program evaluation. How the Accountability Bridge Counseling Program Evaluation Model (Astramovich & Coker, 2007) can be applied to single-case design is described. The use of feedback-informed treatment systems is shown to be a feasible measurement system for this method and for counseling practice. Suggestions are made for future research.