Volume 27, number 2, april 2005
1. A Trip Around the World: A Counseling Travelogue!
Lawrence Gerstein and Stefanía Ægisdóttir, Guest Editors
Counseling has a long history of serving the diverse needs of some of the
people around the globe (Gerstein & Moeschberger, 2003; Leong & Blustein,
2000; Leong & Ponterotto, 2003; McWhirter, 1988a, 1988b, 1988c; Norsworthy
& Gerstein, 2003; Pedersen & Leong, 1997; Rogers, 1987a, 1987b; Rogers &
Sanford, 1987). For many years, a few counseling professionals have traveled
outside of the United States to enrich themselves, to study different cultures,
and, more importantly, to offer a host of educational (e.g., lectures, courses,
workshops, research) and applied (e.g., counseling, consulting, conflict resolution)
services. Perhaps the most visible evidence of this fact is reflected in the
experiences of various counseling professionals who were awarded Fulbright
scholarships to visit such places as the former Soviet Union, the former West
Germany, Turkey, Estonia, Russia, England, Sweden, Iran, Norway, Australia,
Italy, Iceland, Peru, Malaysia, and Zambia (see Hedlund, 1988; Heppner,
1988; Hood, 1993; McWhirter, 1988a, 1988b, 1988c; Nugent, 1988; O’Neil, 1993;
2. Letting a Hundred Flowers Bloom: Counseling and Psychotherapy in the People’s Republic of China
Doris F. Chang; Huiqi Tong; Qijia Shi; Qifeng Zeng
Although the Chinese have been exposed to Western psychotherapies since the 1950s, the practice
of counseling is a relatively new phenomenon. In this article, we trace the development of counseling
in China, examine its cultural and practical relevance, and review recent advances in training
and practice. Although heavily influenced by Western models, contemporary Chinese approaches
to counseling reflect the philosophical traditions, cultural history, and indigenous help-seeking
practices of a rapidly modernizing society. The increasing popularization of psychotherapy in
China is analyzed in the context of the changing social and economic climate and the crises and
opportunities that accompany Chinese life in the 21st century.
3. Talking to the Master: Intersections of Religion, Culture, and Counseling in Taiwan and Ghana (Pages 117-128)
Hsiao-Wen Lo; Vivian Dzokoto
Mental health counseling is gaining worldwide popularity. It is, therefore, important to critically examine the appropriateness of direct importation of Western psychological interventions into nonWestern countries. This article reviews the state of counseling in Taiwan and Ghana. It highlights the heterogeneous nature of counseling services in the face of cultural similarities. In addition, it demonstrates
the importance of considering the interplay of culture and religion in assessment, case conceptualization,
4. Mental Health and Counseling in Japan: A Path Toward Societal Transformation (Pages 129-141)
The collectivist Japanese culture has been influenced by Westernization and internationalization.
Today’s Japanese mental health problems reflect the confusion among Japanese individuals who live in an unstable period between enduring interdependent cultural values and emerging Western values of independence. This article underscores the importance of mental health counselors working congruently within Japanese society by incorporating the social justice perspective. A conceptual framework for optimal societal adaptation is presented. The proposed model consists of action-oriented outreach and advocacy designed to create societal transformation to foster psychological well-being and reduce existing stigma about psychosocial problems and treatment. Mental health issues in the changing climate of contemporary Japan are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on culturally specific trends and resources in order to prevent conflicts and to maintain harmony among individuals within the changing societal systems.
5. Counseling in Fiji (Pages 142-148)
C. R. Auxier; Peter M. Forster; Selina C. Kuruleca
This article discusses the evolving role of mental health counseling in Fiji in the context of current social and cultural changes. Although counseling traditionally has been reserved for cultural elders and the clergy, the term counselor is being redefined, due to Western influences, to include persons who are formally educated and trained to provide mental health services. Contemporary issues such as changing gender roles, violence, and suicide are discussed as forces that are influencing the need for trained mental health counselors. This article discusses the current status of educating and credentialing counselors in Fiji and emphasizes counselor education that stresses methods suited to the cultural characteristics of persons in the region.
6. Counseling in Developing Countries: Turkey and India as Examples (Pages 149-160)
Shonali Raney; Deniz Canel Çinarba˛s,
Turkey and India are developing countries with unique cultural characteristics. The current state of mental health counseling in Turkey and India necessitates new laws, indigenous approaches, adaptations of culture-sensitive approaches, and research projects to validate such approaches. It is the job of mental health counselors to accomplish such complicated and trying tasks in the absence of social and financial resources.
7. Mental Health Counseling in Ukraine (Pages 161-167)
In the past two decades, some profound changes have occurred in the former Soviet Ukraine.These changes have significantly affected Ukrainian mental health counseling. This article provides a synopsis of the historical and social influences on Soviet and Ukrainian mental health services,
transformations that are occurring within the mental health field of the present day Ukraine, and specific mental health issues faced by Ukrainian women and men. The conclusion shares potential implications of this information about Ukrainian mental health issues for U.S. mental health counselors.
8. Counseling and Psychotherapy in Italy: A Profession in Constant Change (Pages 168-184)
Marco Gemignani; Massimo Giliberto
This article illustrates the state of the art for mental health counseling in Italy through a historic and postmodern perspective.The context of Italian mental health counseling is complex and full of new and old premises, events, and arguments. On the one side, the way counseling has developed and is perceived in Italy results from the intersection of old cultural legacies, such as Christianity, and new challenges, such as a multicultural and multiethnic society. On the other side, the development of mental health counseling in Italy is the result of the encounter between the pragmatic, optimist U.S. counseling and the phenomenological, hermeneutic traditions of European schools. The article ends with an exploration of the potentials that may arise from an ongoing communication between U.S. and Italian mental health professionals.