Volume 30, Number 1, January 2008
1. Forgiveness and Forgetting: Clinical Implications for Mental Health Counselors (Pages 1-13)
Lisa Cosgrove; Varda Konstam
Although mental health professionals have attempted to specify the meaning of forgiveness, lack of consensus
exists. Despite the lack of consensus over the meaning of forgiveness, there is agreement that forgiving
is not forgetting or pardoning. However, the relationship between forgiving and forgetting has
been undertheorized, and as a result, this relationship has not been empirically investigated. In this
paper, we suggest that it would be fruitful to assess the meaning systems individuals associate with the
definition of forgiveness. Focusing on the lived experience of individuals may help researchers and
counselors avoid unhelpful dichotomizations such as “authentic vs. inauthentic” forgiveness.
Implications for both research and mental health counseling are discussed.
2. Clinician Perspectives of the Therapeutic Use of the Self-confrontation Procedure with Suicidal Clients (Pages 14-30)
Natalee Popadiuk; Richard A. Young; Ladislav Valach
This research investigated clinician perspectives of the therapeutic use of the self-confrontation procedure
with suicidal clients. The self-confrontation procedure, which involves the use of video playback of
interviews with clients who have experienced suicidal ideation and attempts, has previously been used
for research purposes. The current research sought to build on the use of the self-confrontation procedure
by asking mental health clinicians how they might use the method in a therapeutic context. These
professionals developed an understanding of the procedure through experiential activities, practice,
readings, and discussion. They first identified the challenges in working with suicidal clients, and then
developed ideas about how the self-confrontation method could be useful in overcoming these challenges.
3. Using to Numb the Pain: Substance Use and Abuse Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals (Pages 31-48)
Genevieve N. Weber
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between heterosexist events, internalized
homophobia, and substance use and abuse among 824 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals.
Participants completed the Schedule for Heterosexist Events (SHE), Internalized Homophobia Scale
(IHP), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST).
A MANCOVA with age as a covariate and sexual orientation as a cofactor indicated there were significant
differences in how lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals experienced heterosexism and internalized
homophobia. In particular, gay males and lesbians reported experiencing more heterosexism than bisexuals,
and gay males and bisexuals reported experiencing more internalized homophobia than lesbians.
Participants who were classified as having at least one alcohol or drug use disorder were significantly
more likely to have experienced heterosexism and internalized homophobia than those who were not
classified as having a substance use disorder. Implications for mental health counselors, counselor educators,
and researchers are noted.
4. Looking Back at Adolescent Depression: A Qualitative Study
John McCarthy; Edward J. Downes; Christine A. Sherman
Adolescent depression is a serious disorder marked by a prevalence rate of approximately 5% along with
significant rates of relapse and mortality (Brent & Birmaher, 2002). This qualitative study involved semi-structured
interviews of nine young adults who were diagnosed with and treated for major depressive
disorder between the ages of 15 and 18. Five themes emerged from the interviews: (a) talking to a counselor
about their depression was helpful; (b) participants obtained relief in their counseling and
expressed respect for their professional helpers; (c) parental (and adult) partnerships are important; (d)
friends of the adolescent clients were usually helpful to them; and (e) the adolescents possessed a realistic
optimism concerning a possible subsequent depressive episode. Implications for mental health
counselors are also discussed.
5. Mental Health Professionals’ Evaluations of the Integral Intake, A Metatheory-Based, Idiographic Intake Instrument
Andre Marquis; Janice Miner Holden
This study assessed mental health experts’ comparative evaluations of the two existing published idiographic
intake instruments, the Adlerian-based Life-Style Introductory Interview (LI) and the
Multimodal Life History Inventory (MI), along with Marquis’ (2002; in press) newly developed Integral
Intake (II), grounded in Ken Wilber’s (1999d) integral theory. Fifty-eight counseling/psychotherapy educators
and experienced mental health practitioners perused the three instruments and then used the
author-developed Evaluation Form to respond to open-ended questions, as well as to rate and rank them
on 11 dimensions: the instrument’s overall helpfulness, comprehensiveness, and efficiency, and 8 fundamental
dimensions of clients (thoughts, emotions, behaviors, physical aspects, culture, environmental
systems, spirituality, and what is most meaningful to them). Respondents evaluated the LI consistently
worst, and the II better than the MI on all three instrument dimensions and four of the eight client dimensions.
We discuss the II’s potential to become a standard in the field of mental health counseling.